Red Cell Immunogenetics and Blood Group Terminology

Aim

develop and maintain guidelines for blood group antigen and allele nomenclature for use in Transfusion Medicine and related sciences

The red cell membrane contains many anchored surface proteins and proteins that cross the lipid bilayer. Many of these surface proteins are polymorphic and carry the different blood groups. Most blood group antigens are glycoproteins and their specificity is mostly determined either by the oligosaccharide (e.g. ABO) or amino acid sequence (e.g. MN, Kell, Duffy, Kidd, Diego). Each blood group system represents either a single gene or a cluster of closely linked homologous genes. The 30 human blood group system genes have been identified and sequenced and all the polymorphisms are now known. Most blood group polymorphisms result from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encoding amino acid substitutions in either a glycosyltransferase or extracellular domain of a red cell membrane protein. A blood group system consists of one or more antigens controlled at a single gene locus, or by two or more very closely linked homologous genes with little or no observable recombination between them. Currently recognized antigens within blood group systems are shown in the table and fall into one of four classifications:

About

We are involved in the genetically based numerical terminology for red cell surface antigens. By definition, these antigens must be defined serologically by the use of specific antibodies. All antigens receive a unique ISBT number and must have been shown to be inherited characters. We advise, maintain and monitor the terminology for blood group genes and genetic classification for blood group antigens. We offer members the opportunity to participate in the development/maintenance of nomenclature. We discuss all issues related to molecular typing as well as the analysis of blood group genes.

Our Chairperson is Jill Storry.

 

 

Activities

We meet at the ISBT congresses and maintain up to date catalogues of blood group antigens and alleles. We also write guidelines for nomenclature.

Joining the WP

Any ISBT member can join the WP; candidates are evaluated on their merits based on publication records and CV.

Interested in joining the Red cell Immunogenetics and Blood Group Terminology WP? Please email our Chairperson.

To receive a list of WP members, please email the ISBT Office

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Blood Group Terminology

Introduction

The red cell membrane contains many anchored surface proteins; many of these are polymorphic and carry the different blood groups. Most blood group antigens are glycoproteins and their specificity is mostly determined either by the oligosaccharide or amino acid sequence. The 30 human blood group system genes have been identified and sequenced and all the polymorphisms are now known. Most blood group polymorphisms result from single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) encoding amino acid substitutions in either a glycosyltransferase or extracellular domain of a red cell membrane protein.

All authenticated antigens fall into one of four classifications: systems, collections, low and high incidence antigens:

  • Systems consist of one or more antigens controlled at a single gene locus, or by two or more very closely linked homologous genes with little or no observable recombination between them.
  • Collections (200 series) consist of serologically, biochemically, or genetically related antigens, which do not fit the criteria required for system status.
  • 700 Series or low incidence antigens with an incidence of less than 1% and cannot be included in a system or collection.
  • 901 Series or high incidence antigens with an incidence of greater than 90% and cannot be included in a system or collection. 

Since their discovery in 1900, a variety of different styles of terminology has been used to denote human blood groups. In 1980 the ISBT established therefore a Working Party (later to become a Committee) to devise and maintain a genetically based numerical terminology for red cell surface antigens. By definition, these antigens must be defined serologically by the use of a specific antibody. All antigens receiving ISBT numbers must have been shown to be inherited characters. The information presented here is an update of one of our publications.

Antigens, phenotypes, genes and genotypes 

  • Each antigen belonging to a blood group system is identified by a 6-digit number. The first 3 digits represent the system (e.g. 006 for Kell), the second 3 the specificity (e.g. 006003 for Kpa). Alternatively, the system symbol followed by the antigen number may be used (e.g. KEL003 or, more usually, KEL3 as sinistral zeros may be removed).
  • Phenotypes are represented by the system symbol, followed by a colon, followed by a list of antigens separated by commas. Those antigens shown to be absent are preceded by a minus sign (e.g. KEL:-1,2,3,4).
  • Alleles are designated by the system symbol, followed by an asterisk, and antigen number, all italicised (e.g. KEL*02). ยท Genotypes have the system symbol, followed by an asterisk, alleles or haplotypes separated by a slash, all italicised (e.g. KEL*02.03/02). Refer to the allele terminology guidelines and tables for more detail.
  • For collections, antigen, phenotype, gene, and genotype designations are constructed in the same way.
  • For the 700 and 901 series, 700 or 901 replaces the system symbol.

 

User-friendly and 'everyday' terminology

The numerical terminology was devised primarily for computer storage of information on blood group antigens and to provide a framework for a genetic classification. The numerical terminology is not suitable for everyday communication and many scientists working in the field of human blood groups prefer not to use it in publications. This has led to a variety of alternative names being used for some blood group antigens. In an attempt to introduce some uniformity, a recommended list of alternative names for antigens is provided (see table). In most cases the name or symbol is identical to that originally published, but in a few cases the more commonly used name is provided. In addition, there are recommended formats for describing phenotypes in the alternative terminology.

Criteria for the establishment of new blood group systems

For an antigen to form a new blood group system:

  • the antigen must be defined by a human alloantibody
  • the antigen must be an inherited character
  • the gene encoding it must have been identified and sequenced
  • its chromosomal location must be known
  • the gene must be different from, and not a closely-linked homologue of, all other genes encoding antigens of existing blood group systems.

 

Criteria for the inclusion of a new specificity in an established system

All antigens awarded an ISBT number must have been shown to be inherited and at least one of the following four criteria must be met:

  1. An antithetical relationship between a new antigen and one already assigned to the system.
  2. Demonstration that expression of the antigen is associated with a variation in the nucleotide sequence of the gene controlling the system.
  3. Evidence, from a linkage analysis of family data, that the controlling allele is probably a newly recognised form of the pertinent gene, and supporting serological or biochemical information.
  4. Demonstration that an antigen is located on a protein or glycoprotein that carries other antigens belonging to the system. It must be remembered, however, that this could result from post-translational modification of a gene product, such as glycosylation, which would not support inclusion within the system.

 

Criteria for establishment of a blood group collection

A collection must contain two or more antigens that are related serologically, biochemically, or genetically, but which do not fit the criteria required for system status.

 

Criteria for inclusion in the 700 series 

  1. Incidence of <1% in most populations tested.
  2. Distinction from all other numbered low incidence antigens of the 700 series as well as those of the blood group systems and collections.
  3. Demonstration of inheritance through at least 2 generations.

 

Criteria for inclusion in the 901 series

  1. Incidence of >90% in most populations tested.
  2. Distinction from all other numbered high incidence specificities.
  3. Demonstration that the antigen is lacking from the red cells of at least 2 sibs, i.e. that the negative phenotype is genetically determined.

 

Obsolete Numbers

Once a number has been allocated to a specificity, that number cannot be subsequently used for any other specificity. Consequently, if the number of a specificity becomes inappropriate, then that number becomes obsolete. The obsolete numbers are listed here.

Procurement of ISBT Numerical Designations

Symbols for designations of new specificities will consist of 3-6 on-line capital letters and must not duplicate, alphabetically or phonetically, any current or obsolete symbols shown in the tables. Also, symbols used in related fields, such as those used for platelet and leucocyte antigens, must be avoided. Symbols for specificities that may herald new blood group systems, and thus new genes, have the further constraint that they must differ from any symbols given to genes by the HUGO Nomenclature Committee

 

Procedures for acquisition of an ISBT number

The initial stipulation is that materials for defining the new specificity be available for either circulation or in-house testing. Proposals should be submitted with supporting data to the members of the Committee listed below, who are authorised to allocate provisional numbers. All decisions must be ratified by the Committee before being finalised. To submit a proposal for the acquisition of an ISBT number, please contact the following Committee members:

For a specificity number within an established system, see the following contact persons in the table below.

System #

Name Blood Group System 

Responsible Committee Member

001

ABO

Martin Olsson

002

MNS

Jill Storry

003

P1PK

Margaret Keller

004

RHD

Qing Chen

004

RHCE

Connie Westhoff

005

LU

Christoph Gassner

006

KEL

Masja de Haas

007

Lewis

 

008

FY

Nuria Nogues

009

JK

Greg Denomme

010

DI

Silvano Wendel

011

YT

Vered Yahalom

012

XG

Geoff Daniels

013

SC

Bill Flegel

014

DO

Lilian Castilho

015

CO

Franz Wagner

016

LW

Christine Lomas Francis

017

Ch/Rg

Joann Moulds

018

H

Franz Wagner

019

XK

Catherine Hyland

020

GE

Ellen van der Schoot

021

CROM

Christine Lomas Francis

022

KN

Joann Moulds

023

IN

Yoshihiko Tani

024

OK

Yoshihiko Tani

025

RAPH

Vered Yahalom

026

JMH

Christoph Gassner

027

I

Nicole Thornton

028

GLOB

Martin L. Olsson

029

GIL

Ellen van der Schoot

030

RHAG

Geoff Daniels

031

FORS

Martin Olsson

032

JR

Thierry Peyrard

033

LAN

Thierry Peyrard

034

Vel

Jill Storry

035

CD59

Bill Flegel

 

Transcription Factor GATA1

Transcription Factor KLF1

Geoff Daniels

As DNA testing for the prediction of blood group phenotypes has become more widely applied, it is important to have an agreed terminology for the multitude of alleles encoding blood group phenotypes. A subgroup of this WP has taken this on and made a decision that two nomenclatures are required:

  1. A comprehensive database in which all blood group alleles can be identified. This would provide the official allele name and would require that the whole coding region of the gene has been sequenced. This is still to be developed.
  2. A transfusion medicine-friendly terminology that can be used when only part of the gene has been sequenced or analysed, such as a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP).

A draft of general guidelines for 'transfusion medicine' terminology was developed by a group consisting of Geoff Daniels, Marion Reid, Jill Storry (WP's chairperson), Connie Westhoff, and Martin Olsson.

Additionally, special guidelines for naming RH alleles were developed in parallel by Connie Westhoff, due to the complexity of RH. These two guidelines were approved by the WP, at the Berlin Congress in 2010. Since the terminology was new and took some time to adopt into routine practice, all comments were discussed in 2012. Currently, guidelines and tables for 27 of the 30 blood groups are listed, as well mutations in GATA1 and KLF1 responsible for blood group phenotypes. Other systems will be added as they are completed.

Information regarding new alleles should be sent to the blood group-responsible committee member on the front page.

ISBT number

Blood Group System

001

ABO

002

MNS 

003

P1PK 

004

RH D negative 

004

RH Partial D 

004

RH Weak D and Del 

004

RHCE 

005

LU 

006

KEL 

007

LE

008

FY 

009

JK 

010

DI 

011

YT 

012

XG 

013

SC

014

DO 

015

CO 

016

LW

017

CH/RG

018

H

019

XK

020

GE

021

CROM

022

KN

023

IN

024

OK

025

RAPH

026

JMH

027

I

028

GLOB

029

GIL

030

RHAG

031

FORS

032

JR

033

LAN

Transcription Factor

GATA1

Transcription Factor

KLF1

Meetings

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GET IN TOUCH

Jill Storry

Jill Storry

Chairperson

E-mail
Lund University
Laboratory Medicine
Lund, Sweden

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