Granulocyte Immunobiology


enable collaborations in granulocyte immunobiology by bringing together members working in a (diagnostic) laboratory, research and/or clinical setting

Neutrophils are part of the granulocyte family and play an important role in innate immunity. Neutrophils or polymorphonuclear neutrophils (PMNs) make up the largest proportion of circulating leukocytes. Patients with low PMN counts (neutropenia) or functional defects in PMN are more likely to be overwhelmed by infection. Granulocyte-reactive antibodies have been shown to play a key role in the pathophysiology of several immune-mediated neutropenias, transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI), auto-immune neutropenia after bone marrow transplantation and febrile transfusion reactions. Post-transfusion, in TRALI, the donor-derived antibodies can cause inappropriate activation of neutrophils leading to damage of the pulmonary microvasculature with severe clinical consequences. Thus, these disorders demand rapid and precise diagnosis using reliable neutrophil serology.


We encourage and support new and emerging granulocyte laboratories through education and organisation of practical workshop-like sessions. We provide access to like-minded colleagues active in (diagnostic) laboratory, research and/or clinical settings in all aspects of granulocyte immunobiology. We discuss standards for serology diagnostics and are involved in education and training programmes for new laboratories. Our WP supports scientific co-operation between our members and organises meetings. We establish and monitor nomenclature for human neutrophil alloantigens (HNA). Moreover, we develop standards for laboratory diagnostics of TRALI and compatibility testing of granulocyte concentrates, detection of anti-granulocyte antibodies, -antigens and we characterise granulocyte antibody-mediated disorders. We support and promote the HNA nomenclature subcommittee.

Our Chairperson is Behnaz Bayat.


We meet at the ISBT congresses and organise International educational Workshops every other year. Also, we regularly organise the exchange of typing sera and typed DNA.

Joining the WP

Membership is open to all ISBT members actively working in a (diagnostic) laboratory, research, clinical setting and/or pharmaceutical company of the field of Granulocyte Immunobiology.

Interested in joining the Granulocyte Immunobiology WP? Please email our Chairperson




Some of the content is only accessible for ISBT-members. To join us, click here.


Scientific References

  1. Transfusion-related acute lung injury: an overview.Bayat B, Sachs U Curr Pharm Des. 2012;18(22):3236-40. doi:10.2174/1381612811209023236
  2. Update on the nomenclature of human neutrophil antigens and allelesFlesch BK, Curtis BR, de Haas M, Lucas G, Sachs UJ.Transfusion. 2016 Jun;56(6):1477-9.
  3. Molecular Genetics of the Human Neutrophil AntigensFlesch BK, Reil A.Transfus Med Hemother. 2018 Oct;45(5):300-309. doi: 10.1159/000491031
  4. A sequence-specific polymerase chain reaction method for HNA-2 genotyping: homozygous c.843A>T mutation predicts the absence of CD177Bayat B, Bein G, Sachs UJTransfusion. 2016 Aug;56(8):2127-32. doi: 10.1111/trf.13689
  5. Interaction of leucocyte antibodies with endothelial cells in transfusion‐related acute lung injury. B. Bayat ISBT Science Series November 2016
  6. External quality assessment of human neutrophil antigen (HNA)-specific antibody detection and HNA genotyping from 2000 to 2012Lucas G, Porcelijn L, Fung YL, Green F, Reil A, Hopkins M, Schuller R, Green A, de Haas M, Bux J.Vox Sang. 2013 Oct;105(3):259-69.
  7. Expression of the CTL2 transcript variants in human peripheral blood cells and human tissues.Flesch BK, Wesche J, Berthold T, Goldmann T, Hundt M, Greinacher A, Bux JTransfusion. 2013 Dec;53(12):3217-23. doi: 10.1111/trf.12160.
  8. The nonconservative CD177 single-nucleotide polymorphism c.1291G>A is a genetic determinant for human neutrophil antigen-2 atypical/low expression and deficiency Wu J, Li Y, Schuller RM, Li L, Litmeyer AS, Bein G, Sachs UJ, Bayat B.Transfusion. 2019 May;59(5):1836-1842. doi: 10.1111/trf.15222.
  9. Molecular basis of human neutrophil antigen 2 (HNA‐2) expressionBehnaz BayatISBT Science Series November 2019,

For a list of HNA alleles and antigens click here.

Watch the interview "Granulocytes and Transfusion Medicine"

Follow this link to visit ISBT Education and watch the interview with Lin Fung and Ulrich Sachs. The talk was recorded at the 27th Regional Congress of the ISBT in 2017 in Copenhagen. 

Visualized protocol for the Granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT)

Granulocyte immunofluorescence test (GIFT) is considered the main test for the detection of antibodies against human neutrophil antigens (HNAs). Please find below a visualized protocol for the GIFT assay. 

Do you have a question or a comment about GIFT? Please leave a message below.

GIFT test comment

Personal information


Behnaz Bayat

Behnaz Bayat


Clinical Immunology and Transfusion Medicine
Justus-Liebig University
Giessen, Germany